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The translation is - and is new from the meaning text with one language active - source text existence, the equivalent text with other language - goal texts, or the translation production explanation calls. In the tradition, translates the human activity is, although attempted has been done the automation and the automation natural language text translation - machine translation - or the computer translation and the computer use achievement aids to the translation -. The translation goal is the equal proportion and purports between the origin and the goal text (namely guaranteed two texts it was similarly reported) corresponds but establishes, considers by the certain quantity restriction. These restrictions includes the context, the source language grammar rule, is the writing agreement, is the phrase expression and like this.
- 1 Interpretation large translation
- 2 Process of the transfer
- 3 Success of expedient of translation
- 4 Problems of translation
- 5 The what kind of shedding of blood of the shedding of blood which translation is specialized
- 5.1 Administration it translate
- 5.2 Commerce translation
- 5.3 With computer translation
- 5.4 Economy it translate
- 5.5 Translation of the original of public finance translation
- 5.6 General translation
- 5.7 legal translation
- 5.8 Literature it translate
- 5.9 Medical science it translate
- 5.10 The pedagogical translation
- 5.11 Dispensing translation
- 5.12 Science translation
- 5.13 The learned translation
- 5.14 Technical translation
- 6 The translation of history
- 7 It is form of the translation which creates the target text to which tendency
- 8 Critical of the translation
- 9 Additional vision
Interpretation large translation
From also different one thing, it moves the idea which expresses with the shoes and inside writing from the interpretation which is become accomplished an idea and it expresses 1 language it moves it is become accomplished,, between translate, or by the use of gesture together in case of receiving from 1 language also different Han Gae E (with the thing), it divides. Analysis of the process which it relates (translation study) until the interpretation will can be spared and as subordinate category of translation and if, actually the talent which hazard is demanded the activity of these 2 things is different positively.
Process of the transfer
The process of transfer, whether it for the transfer or to interpret, it is possible to describe simply as:
- to decipher smysl' of iskhodnyya text, and
- Re -.wifru4 this smysl' in the purposeful language.
In order to decipher smysl' of text the translator must first define his component "translator units", that is to say the stages of text, it is which necessary to process as cognitive block. By translator unit it can be word, phrase or even one or more by proposals.
After this seemingly simply procedure lies complex cognitive activity. To decipher completely smysl' of iskhodnyya text, translator to consciously and systematically interpret and to analyze all its characteristics. This process requires the thorough knowledge of grammar, semantics, syntax, idioms and similarity of the source language, also as the culture of its announcers.
Translator is the same profound knowledge Re -.zawifrovat6 of smysl' in the purposeful language. In actuality, frequently the knowledge of the translators of purposeful language to vazhne, and to be is more deep than their knowledge of the source language. For this reason, majorities translators transfer into language of which they will be govoryashchiya in the native language.
In addition, knowledge being obsuzhdannym of the content necessarily.
In recent years study in the cognitive linguistics we could ensure valuable insights into poznavatel'nyya the process of the transfer.
Success of expedient of translation
While purpose of translation is inserting in consideration, as for source and the target text being to be to guarantee the fact that the same message is conveyed, as for the various control where places on the translator it is possible skillful to translate to judge with two standards:
- In addition then it means the original with pulling to that and the part of the meaning intensify of being the range, or, and makes does not weaken and loyalty is called the sincerity where where translation adds accurately, or; And originally thing language it seems that is written in the person where translation speaks the native language of target language, it coincides and as for and
- transparent things which are the range grammar of language, in the usual conference with respect to syntax.
The translation which parallels to first standard is said that "faithful translation" is,; The translation which parallels to 2nd standard is said that "usual translation" is. Two always is not exclusive.
Standard changes contents of subject and the original, type, function and use and literature quality, society of the text the historical background following hugely, precisely, and so on it was normal translation to judge sincerely.
Standard in order to judge transparent ones of translation probably seems that is simpler: As for unidiomatic translation the extreme case of the word-for-word translation which occurs due to many machine translation systems by mistake it is frequently with the result of nonsense of the patent, "you sound,".
In spite even to that in order to create literal translation intentionally, perhaps the translator with a certain context, you endeavor. For example, the literature translator and the translator of religion work come in contact with the original frequently as much as possible. In order to create the unidiomatic text, in order to do this, those "extend," the boundary of target language prudently.
In order to offer "the local color" of translation in the same way, when we would like to adopt the word or expression from source language, there is a literature translator.
As for concept of loyalty and transparent ones with recent translation theory another way you see. When momentum of 1/4 where it has the original is obtained when acceptance possible translation is in the same way creative, it is and the thought, original.
Recently, in ten years, the most remarkable supporter of non transparent translation mode "is most prose translations (L'3epreuve de l'3etranger 1984) with identified the tendency of the deformation of characteristic 12 and in place of those which domesticate the foreignizing" translation maneuvers the フランコカナダ translation scholar Antoine Berman who includes American theoretician Lawrence Venuti who hires the translator in order to apply (for example, look at the execution request Invisibility 1994 of that ' translator ').
Many non transparent translation theories pull with the concept of German of the clearest influence of the modern theory of foreignization which is the German theology person and philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher Romanticism. With explanation/learning discussion of that semen "of the method translation differing" (namely) as for him 1813 respects foreignness of the original, "the writer [ the reader ]" do to move translation method, namely transparent ones, with "[ the author ] move the reader" you distinguished between method. Schleiermacher supported after clearly. But as for that there is a value which is pointed out, motive could be given so, with the craving where that taste includes the foreign country, but being intended as the national principle practice which promotes the literature of the counter confronting and Germany in the cultural rule of France on the other hand.
But concept of loyalty and transparent ones TG0 0N strong way, remains in western tradition. In order to become popular with non western tradition, always there are no those. For example, in Ramayana of the Indian epic there is a many edition with many Indian language, the respective story differs from each other. If 1 Tsuga Indian (アーリア or Dravidian) you see in the word which is used for translation with language, the freedom where is given to the translator is clear.
Problems of translation
The translation is in oneself a difficult activity. The translators can face the additional problems which make the process much more difficult, like:
- Problems with the source text:
- Changes made with the text during the process of illegible translation
- Text badly spelled or incorrectly printed
- unfinished Text
- Text badly written
- the references absent in the text (for example the translator must translate legends with the photographs absent)
- the containd of source text a translation of a quotation which was in the beginning made in the target language, and the original text is inalienable, returning word-with-word quoting almost impossible
- obvious Inexactitudes in the source text (for example "the prehistoric Buddhist ruins", when Buddhism was not founded for prehistoric periods)
- problems of language
- Limites and neologisms of Acronyms and abbreviations not explained
- obscure Jargon
- poetic Rhymes, puns and meters
- strongly specific cultural References
- subtle but important Properties of language such as the euphony or the dissonance
Is the question whether special word cannot translate the "word name list which cannot translate with" frequently to debate that, often is produced.
These name lists frequently include word for example saudade, the Portuguese word (and are used with Spanish) are example "cannot translate". It as "sorrowfully longed for" quite neatly translates however, but has is difficultly including in translation some slight differences; For example, this is a frontage the concept which takes, is not clear in this basic translation subtlety.
Some words are the difficult translations only if you hoped retains in the similar grammar category. For example, it is the difficult discovery noun corresponds to Russia? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? (pochemuchka) or Yiddish? ? ? ? ? ? (shlimazl), only English adjective "curious" and "jinxed" corresponds the just fine.
The journalist is naturally warm-hearted works as the linguist provides the gloomy word by the place flavor, and cannot declare their "cannot translate", but these unbelievable cultural loading deadlines are the easiest all translations in fact, even more compared to concept for example "mother". This is because it is the standard operation translates these words by the similar word in another language, first time borrows it if need. For example, a menu English edition very little can translate p4at3e in the French restaurant the de goose liver to take "obese liver starch", although this is a good description. Instead, the translation which accepts simply is p4at3e the de goose liver, or, at most, goose liver p4at3e. In certain situations, only transcription essential: Japanese? ? Translates English to take wasabi. A short description or parallel and is frequently may accept with a familiar concept: ? ? ? Or "Japanese black mustard" may and translate as "Japanese horse radish".
Gloomy and makes concrete to the deadline is the culture, is simpler it to translate. For example, insignificant solution name for example Euroa automatically is just "Euroa" is using the Roman alphabet in Australia with each language the world, it adopts some knowledge to know Saragossa is Zaragoza, Saragosse, and so on or China is? ? Cina, vertebra, and so on.
The problem of common words
The words that it is genuinely difficult they are translated are often the small, common words. For example, the verb "that it takes" in his all various uses covers almost seven columns of most recent publication of galloaggljkoy' lexical Robert - Collins. The same thing is in effect for the more obviously simple, common words, as "it goes" (seven columns), "you come" (four and columns of one half), and so kac'exi's.
The cultural aspects can complicate the translation. Examine the example of word as "the bread". In the first glance, it is a very simple word, that is reported in daily use in only a thing, with the obvious translations in other languages. But you ask from the persons from England, France or China in order to you describe or you draw "the bread", du pain or? (b?o), and they will describe the different things, based on their individual cultures.
The different levels of precision innately in a language play also a role. What "there" means? Even rejecting him jdjwmatjke's uses as "there, it does not shout", we can come confronted from various possibilities. If something is "there" but no very makrya', one Spanish will say ahn if it is more beyond it will say alln, unless exist connotations "near there", "beyond in distant" or "in that side", therefore s'ayti' the case the word are likely they are other. On the contrary, in the common French, and the three "there" significances plus the significance "here" all tend they are expressed with word ly'!.
A donkey can contain the expressions that are reported in the significances that do not exist in a other language. For example, French "tutoyer" "and" vouvoyer "and the two would be translated in the English so much" in order to it examines since "you" ", since the unique informal second pronoun of persons is arhaj!'zoysa (rhymes with "cow") in the English. Still this unsophisticated translation destroys completely the significance of verbs: "vouvoyer" it means it examines the utilisation official "you" it shapes ("vous"), while "tutoyer" it means it uses the informal form ("TU"). Indeed, when they used English "you" pronoun, "" as verb i'saste a translation for "tutoyer" today, it is difficult is given a concise translation that conceives the nuances of "TU" against. "vous". However, resorting to a the Biblical English phrase, to "thee and thou", may get a point across.
The problem finds often in the failure to distinguish between the translation and the annotation. The annotation is what a glossary: give short (usually monolektjko') compensation for each term. The translation, as it is explained above, apokwdjkopojej' the importance and the intention in the level of texts (no the level of levels or even proposal of word) and then their epan-coding in a language objective. The words as the saudade and it is difficult "to be commented" in single other word, but given two or more words that can perfect sufficiently "be translated". Similarly, depending on symfrazo'mena, the significance of French word "tutoyer", or Spanish "tutear", could be translated so much "in order to it is with terms of name with". "The bread" has perhaps a better claim in the existence untranslatable, from even if we resort in the maxim of "French bread", "Chinese bread", "algerian bread", "Picasso's Bread", etc where we supported themselves in our audience knowing what these are as.
The what kind of shedding of blood of the shedding of blood which translation is specialized
the original which it writes is a possibility the hazard candidate of connecting a translation and all, but, the translation industry by the multiple area of professionalization is classified at any time. To each professionalization challenge of it oneself and there is a difficulty. This of translation the roster which the shedding of blood which it specializes is imperfect includes:
Administration it translate
translation of the administrative original.
commerce (enterprise) translation of the original.
With computer translation
computer program the document which is relationship (the operationg manual and help apply web site.)
phwa_pen_yek Region anger and that conception in target language adaptation and culture of translation, it gets a supply inside this region of professionalization.
In order to point at the practice of this computer translation (duration "computer translation" to use the computer which translate the original with the automatic movement which is used from time to time, week.)
Economy it translate
inside field of economy translation of the original.
Translation of the original of public finance translation
public finance character.
"generality" translation of the original. Actually, the some original "the general" is with realness,; With professionalization most big autumn with the back which it does not see but it is same,
the legal document (law, contracting and treaty, etc.) the transation.
Inside legal translate because is the possibility which there is a result which is an inaccurate this seriousness, it becomes skill and the legal interpretation in the normality in translation becomes skill in as law, (enough at any time in legal training).
(Problem translation 1 thing it sees it is a treaty of the Waitangi where in the place English and E duck person version are incorrect inside which important area.)
With the fact that it is servile in the person whose per 1 is different because the report flag does not want together in many case this this Ji Anh to be possible, from time to time, in order to prevent like that problem, 1 language, will be declaration one authority to the translation will be the legal binding force which it does not think.
Literature it translate
the literary work (novel, short novel, playing, poem and etc..)
When phwa_pen_yek the translation of non-literary day is regarded as a specialty, the fiction and right time translation are art very compared to. Canada inside the same talkative U country, the translation at any time as literature tracking is spared with specific right and. The SheilaFischman, Robert Dickson and LindaGaboriau number Canada literature are clear in interpretation, and in the granularity which from with the literature award which is a common is identical more same year in first Great Britain in France and France British literature translation hazard governor-general award present time they are prominent inside the goods.
The VladimirNabokov the author also made the name of their oneself in literature interpretation.
The many thing poem most as the style which is difficult, inside all making the shape and a contents inside target language to spare, gives a difficulty and it translate it does. In order to do "inside the paper which him is powerful in language aspect of translation" at 1959 declaration, by "" the thing and a untranslatable justice poem [ it was, ] it went even until the Russia inherent language scholar and semiotician Rome Jakobson. Inside 1974 James the American person poet Merrill hour, "it burnt this subject inside portion and inside translate which buys it lost," it wrote. This question su the Hofstadter's1997 book and the LeTon mes the market also burns more wrongly inside the d U Marot became nine where.
Translation of the original which becomes song
from time to time "the translation of the original which becomes the song which becomes known as a song translation" in right time translation in rhyme - - inside west tradition most big vocal music, in at least verse, in order to put is near, it is a break, in schedule one original bill special and verse it is connected. The pop music after lyem or conservative is remaining without inside it possessing of the stanzaic shape and the thing the highway, (with prose from 19 century latter half century music regulations of verse which is free also inside some art music approximately it came.) The Germany hymn where it translate a hazard poem, foundation it sees, the CatherineWinkworth translate a song with English same church hymn, is.
Between translate which inside previously it expresses with poem and the translation which in verse structure it distributes will select almost similarly because is freedom, translation of the song one original right time translation compared to it restricts generally very. 1 thing at the week when in interpretation it is clear inside original music regulation place company one challenging fringe land one omitted the designation of rhyme and syllable but inside song translate. It shares a week, each and again it combines and prose, the enemy is liker that inside and from here and that place it adds a syllable, it eliminates, option, it is inside verse and all, but the process which is equal in prose gets near and the prosody specific broad way one which is possible the verse translation which is strict because of necessity it does as well almost is. Inside writing a song translation, the different consideration repetition and remainder of word and phrase and/also arrangement of punctuation mark, in quality and target language of the vowel which becomes song at high week sees the natural enemy connects includes the voice good intention leading American knife one feature which it does not know in source language.
Literature translation with the thing the person where together, the some song translation is different compared to compared to recovers in different type,; What kind of the datedness or hands down from the favor where the expiration of time becomes inaccurately.
The song of the original which is translate necessary, being provided than, to be fewer it is when continuously a century hazard is general and but, the translation which it writes inside concert program or with the subject which is planned inside result auditorium time medium listening sleeps with insertion and inside the what kind of shape, when for example.
Medical science it translate
translation of day of medical character.
Medicine translation together, the medical translation is the professionalization which is the possibility where the mistranslation will be a company one result to the place.
The pedagogical translation
translation is practiced takes the academic society second language method.
The pedagogical translation use is rich (and estimate) student's vocabulary in the second language, helps to assimilate the new grammar structure and to verify student's understanding. Is different to other type translations, the pedagogical translation occurs in student's locality (or rule) the language and the second language. In other words the student will translate two to/from the second language. Other differences in translates between this way and other ways is, the goal frequently is the phrase literal translation is adopted in the context, and outside the text fragment, is perhaps completed has made for the exercise goal.
The pedagogical translation should not confuse with the learned translation.
work translation in dispensing industry.
Like the medical translation, the dispensing translation is the mistranslation possibly has the serious result the specialization.
scientific text translation.
The learned translation
specialized text translation is written in an academic environment.
The learned translation should not confuse with the pedagogical translation.
technology text translation (guide, instruction, and so on).
Even more specifically, contains amount upper limit terminology, namely, the word or the expression the text which uses (nearly) only in a concrete domain, or describes that domain in very many details.
The translation of history
the religion original
translation of religion day role is important inside world history. When for example translate India sutras with Chinese language the buddhist monk in order to a well China quite to be adapted different culture will get crooked a translation at any time, theyn the place. The child pious conception was emphasized consequently.
One thing of the first case of the translation activity which it records inside the west inside the 3rd century B.C.E. was translation of old promise with Greek,; This translation was entrusted in each interpretation which inside the cell which separates works inside solitary confinement interpretation of 70 things (inside some version translate the bible in the island of 72) Paphos, there is Iss with the Septuagint which it refers. All 70 versions were exact and equality they were, to legend it is it. The Septuagint will beg and Latin U and the Coptic, Armenia U and the George king it includes and and and a later translation became the hazard origin original with the language which is different.
The guardian deity of translation of the Jerome with Latin U, it translate the bible yet, grudge of head of a family company one interpretation is spared his day inside hazard history and. The catholic church century hazard (Iss it is) it used this translation with the Vulgate, it released but and when putting even, his translation met a vast quantity argument.
The pro reel su it burnt and thu the reform local language of Europe which has Daen company one shock to crack between the Protestantism and Catholicism, by the catholic church to with act and the fact that it is criticized saw the translation of the bible. With English to the Martin Luther's bible there was an effect which is continued in religion, culture and language of that country inside German language and the wages James Bible.
It is form of the translation which creates the target text to which tendency
machine translation of translation (MT) the computer program analyzes the original, does not have the inclusion of the human.
Principal purpose of the natural language which recently machine translation and processes met to the success which is limited. Because most machine translations require pre-edit and the second volume collection stage, inclusion of the human of type is included.
With machine translation, observe to the translator supporting the machine. With Internet, it seems like Babelfish of AltaVista and the equipment which can be utilized programmed price translation low in the large public, had the technology of machine translation.
The rough translation where something which is called "gisting translation" as for the agricultural products of these equipments - gives "gist" of the original, it is not enabled with another method, but.
However, for example it is terminology and simple sentence structure, in the field where the range where the weather report is limited very has been attached, to convey the useful result it is possible machine translation.
Because as for the text which is translated mechanically often in at last thinking, in case of the original text, we would like to do all optional precision, it is important to use the professional translator, it has been similar.
Translation field is controlled, Futurism and the engineer where Raymond Kurzweil estimates that to machine translation 2012 sufficiently are powerful. In addition as for examination of the technology of MIT "ten years of 2004 lists" universal it translated within as perhaps and it interpreted the list. But being in machine translation of 50 age, the first seriousness you could invade that kind of request.
Computer invocation translation
and the computer invocation translation (cat) which is called machine translation is form of the translation where the human translator draws up the help and the target text of the computer program. With computer invocation translation, observe to the machine supporting the translator.
The standard dictionary and because the grammatical software is included can computer invocation translation see,; However, word is normally used for the translator can be utilized, the program which special makes the range showing.
For example, the translation memory (TM) program you store the original and the equal target text which are translated before the database, arrange into the straight line.
Those were known "as division, the original which it tears in the unit which it is easy to process. "Normally, as in the unit (heading, title or list element) sentence, each source text sentence or the text is divided to the paragraph in place of the occasionally sentence, but it is considered as division. When the translator it works with the division of the document and translation memory indicatory source and the translation before for the reusing, if simultaneously and very there is translation before, or it urges the translator in order to write new translation. After translation for dividing completes, the program stores new translation, moves to the following division. Translation memory, with principle, is the simple database of entry item for each dividing the group: It offered the entry item for dividing the source and the entry item which for division translation corresponds with the translator.
this is the interest territory whose field of translation investigation is new. Cultural translation or is process of the conceptual language deformation which is used for indicating with another method, in cultural investigation with culture of a certain specification. Concept with language translation or analysis of character of deformation uses the metaphor with culture as equipment. Because of example, ethnography is considered as the story where the abstract culture which has lived is translated.
Critical of the translation
0ccasionally, the critical one can be made of the act of the translation. Such critical one is the lack "of coherence" in the translation. The critical one can be declared as it follows. If a history originally written inglese and future in a country anglófono, will be translated Frenchman, for example, it can lose the relative logic due to the phrases as "ways to say inglese" I criticize I ask for that the translation would have to be. "English it in accordance with says -" or "Frenchmen speak -". this critical one, answered will be self-contradictory. If answered it will be to ask for fossas yes, given that the first translation this meant something as, "yes I say a language that does not use and that one is absoluement insignificant". For the second translation it would mean "yes, that is a country anglófono, but all, understood me, says Frenchmen." Gist of the this critical that one of the main rules in the translation must "keep dispute" and that the language of the document is in if heart I contest.
This critical one can be refused in many directions. In prémier place, this type of present situation rare in the translations in ambient. When, the translator can use the techniques to prevent the neighboring problem, for example, to translate "ways to say inglese" _ "way says my language" or "understood that I say" Another one is not that a reader of French language that reads a written book for example of Agatha Christie that describes a homicide in headquarters stately inglese, becomes very probably counts that carácteres said inglese in the original.
One another critical one is of nature more philosofique. It supports that the translation can described as be written that read in one another language. The question sets if the reader can know if the translator understands the original author perfectly. Time this is the work of the translator, is the author who is praised for the work; but can a translation of Asimov be considered as work of the Asimov? In accordance with this critical one, the translation could exactly be seen as "plagiarism legal". The translations can be sufficiently different of the original: for example, the name of Zaphod Beeblebrox in the guide of hitchhiker to the galaxy of Douglas Adams was translated Frenchman of Jean Bonnefoy as Zapi Bibici. Time this is not an enormous difference, is there. Adams cannot completely be happy with this change and is of a series of such small ones of the changes that a translation transformed into into an adaptation, in accordance with this critical one.
To that it is a long complaint - long-teams of the translation, that one is stated in the Translating Italian expression, traître - each translation is one betrayal. _ another part, being rare a work novel to translate without a negotiation how much to have right and very an author to be happy to put one part reserves about name déesses to carácter in way that occasion to increase sound readership.
To that that it is a long complaint - length team of the translation, that one is explained in the Italian translation expression, traitors - each translation costs a betrayal _ another part, which is rare, a work novel, to place in order to translate without negotiation, how much, in order to be lucky to be right and very an author, a part regarding déesses reserves mentioned at more carácter in the kind, which cause, in order to increase the healthy readership.
Pronounciation can be a problem, if the language of it is logical none. Many different pronounciations can be a problem, if different dialects are considered, different being by the imply area. A solution can be that you form more effort to speak correctly.